What are Gnats?

A small two-winged fly that resembles a mosquito. Gnats include both biting and nonbiting forms, and they typically form large swarms.

Quick Facts

  • Male gnats often assemble in large mating swarms or ghosts, particularly at dusk.
  • Gnat larvae are mostly free-living and some are aquatic. Many feed on plants, though some are carnivorous.

Gnat larvae

  • For the most part, they are free-living, while some are aquatic.
  • While some are carnivorous, many feed on plants.


  • Commonly known as dark-winged fungus gnats.
  • Known to be a pest of mushroom farms.
  • Common to inhabit household plant pots.

Sand Fly

  • Some horse flies called "green-heads" are another name for Sand Flies in the United States.